Islam: Prohibition of Alcohol and Gambling, by Aliyu Shugaba

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Islam: Prohibition of Alcohol and Gambling, by Aliyu Shugaba

Assalamu alaikum.
Peace and blessings of Allah upon our Noble Prophet Muhammad S.A.W.
We will be discussing Alcohol and gambling, today’s life we muslim take more alcohol and gamble most especially the youths which have taken the sports bets as an entrepreneur method to generates money. All these are against the ways of Islam.

What Quran says about Alcohol an gambling.
The Gradual and Final Prohibition of Khamr (Alcoholic Drink) .

Allah says;

يَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْخَمْرِ وَالْمَيْسِرِ قُلْ فِيهِمَا إِثْمٌ كَبِيرٌ وَمَنَافِعُ لِلنَّاسِ وَإِثْمُهُمَأ أَكْبَرُ مِن نَّفْعِهِمَا

They ask you (O Muhammad) concerning alcoholic drink and 95 gambling.

Say:”In them is a great sin, and (some) benefits for men, but the sin of them is greater than their benefit.”

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Maysarah said that;

Umar once said, “O Allah! Give us a clear ruling regarding Al-Khamr!” Allah sent down the Ayah of Surah Al-Baqarah:
يَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْخَمْرِ وَالْمَيْسِرِ قُلْ فِيهِمَا إِثْمٌ كَبِيرٌ
(They ask you (O Muhammad) concerning alcoholic drink and gambling. Say:”In them is a great sin…). Umar was then summoned and the Ayah was recited to him.

Yet, he still said, “O Allah! Give us a clear ruling regarding Al-Khamr.”

Then, this Ayah that is in Surah An-Nisa’ was revealed:
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ امَنُواْ لَا تَقْرَبُواْ الصَّلَةَ وَأَنتُمْ سُكَارَى
(O you who believe! Approach not As-Salah (the prayer) when you are in a drunken state), (4:43).

Then, when the prayer was called for, a person used to herald on behalf of Allah’s Messenger, “No drunk person should attend the prayer.”

Umar was summoned again and the Ayah was recited to him. Yet, he still said, “O Allah! Give us a clear ruling regarding Al-Khamr.”

Then, the Ayah (5:91) that is in Surah Al-Ma’idah was revealed, Umar was again summoned and the Ayah was recited to him. When he reached:
فَهَلْ أَنتُم مُّنتَهُونَ
(So, will you not then abstain) (5:91) he said, “We did abstain, we did abstain.”
This is also the narration that Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa’i collected in their books.
Ali bin Al-Madini and At-Tirmidhi said that the chain of narrators for this Hadith is sound and authentic. We will mention this Hadith again along with what Imam Ahmad collected by Abu Hurayrah Allah’s saying in Surah Al-Ma’idah:
إِنَّمَا الْخَمْرُ وَالْمَيْسِرُ وَالَانصَابُ وَالَازْلَامُ رِجْسٌ مِّنْ عَمَلِ الشَّيْطَانِ فَاجْتَنِبُوهُ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ
Intoxicants and gambling, and Al-Ansab, and Al-Azlam are an abomination of Satan’s handiwork. So avoid (strictly all) that (abomination) in order that you may be successful. (5:90)

Allah said:

يَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْخَمْرِ وَالْمَيْسِرِ

They ask you (O Muhammad) concerning alcoholic drinks and gambling.
As for Al-Khamr, Umar bin Khattab, the Leader of the faithful, used to say, “It includes all what intoxicates the mind.”
Allah said:
قُلْ فِيهِمَا إِثْمٌ كَبِيرٌ وَمَنَافِعُ لِلنَّاسِ
Say:In them is a great sin, and (some) benefits for men.
As for the harm that the Khamr and gambling cause, it effects the religion.

As for their benefit, it is material, including benefit for the body, digesting the food, getting rid of the excrements, sharpening the mind, bringing about a joyous sensation and financially benefiting from their sale.

Also, (their benefit includes) earnings through gambling that one uses to spend on his family and on himself. Yet, these benefits are outweighed by the clear harm that they cause which affects the mind and the religion.

This is why Allah said:

وَإِثْمُهُمَأ أَكْبَرُ مِن نَّفْعِهِمَا
but the sin of them is greater than their benefit.

Ibn Umar, Ash-Sha`bi, Mujahid, Qatadah, Ar-Rabi bin Anas and Abdur-Rahman bin Aslam stated that the first Ayah revealed about Khamr was:
يَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْخَمْرِ وَالْمَيْسِرِ قُلْ فِيهِمَا إِثْمٌ كَبِيرٌ
They ask you about Khamr and gambling. Say:”In them there is great sin.”
Then, the Ayah in Surah An-Nisa was revealed (on this subject)
▪The Prohibition of Approaching Prayer When Drunk.

Allah says;

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ امَنُواْ لَا تَقْرَبُواْ الصَّلَةَ وَأَنتُمْ سُكَارَى حَتَّىَ تَعْلَمُواْ مَا تَقُولُونَ

O you who believe! Do not approach Salah while you are in a drunken state until you know what you are saying,

Allah forbade His believing servants from praying while drunk, for one does not know the meaning of what he is saying in that state, and He forbade them from attending the Masjids while sexually impure, except when one is just passing through the Masjid from one door to another.

This Ayah was revealed before alcohol consumption was completely prohibited, as evident by the Hadith that we mentioned in Surah Al-Baqarah when we explained Allah’s statement,
يَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْخَمْرِ وَالْمَيْسِر
(They ask you about alcoholic drink and gambling). (2:219)

In that Hadith, the Messenger of Allah recited this Ayah to Umar, who said, “O Allah! Explain the ruling about Khamr (intoxicants) for us in a plain manner.”

When this Ayah (4:43) was revealed, the Prophet recited it to Umar, who still said, “O Allah! Explain the ruling about Khamr (intoxicants) for us in a plain manner.”

After that, they would not drink alcohol close to the time of prayer. When Allah’s statement,

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ امَنُواْ إِنَّمَا الْخَمْرُ وَالْمَيْسِرُ وَالَانصَابُ وَالَازْلَامُ رِجْسٌ مِّنْ عَمَلِ الشَّيْطَانِ فَاجْتَنِبُوهُ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ
O you who believe! alcoholic drinks, gambling, Al-Ansab, and Al-Azlam are an abomination of Shaytan’s handiwork. So avoid that in order that you may be successful (5:90) until,
فَهَلْ أَنتُم مُّنتَهُونَ
So, will you not then abstain! (5:91) was revealed.

Umar said, “We abstain, we abstain.”

In another narration, when the Ayah in Surah An-Nisa’was revealed,
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ امَنُواْ لَا تَقْرَبُواْ الصَّلَةَ وَأَنتُمْ سُكَارَى حَتَّىَ تَعْلَمُواْ مَا تَقُولُونَ
(O you who believe! Do not approach Salah while you are in a drunken state until you know what you are saying), at the time of prayer, the Messenger of Allah would have someone proclaim; “Let not any drunk approach the prayer.”

This is the wording collected by Abu Dawud.
Causes of Its Revelation

Ibn Abi Hatim has recorded some reports about the incident of its revelation:

Sa`d said, “Four Ayat were revealed concerning me.

A man from the Ansar once made some food and invited some Muhajirin and Ansar men to it, and we ate and drank until we became intoxicated. We then boasted about our status.”

Then a man held a camel’s bone and injured Sa`d’s nose, which was scarred ever since. This occurred before Al-Khamr was prohibited, and Allah later revealed,
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ امَنُواْ لَا تَقْرَبُواْ الصَّلَةَ وَأَنتُمْ سُكَارَى
(O you who believe! Approach not As Salat (the prayer) when you are in a drunken state).

Muslim recorded this Hadith, and the collectors of the Sunan recorded it, with the exception of Ibn Majah.

Another Reason Ibn Abi Hatim narrated that;

Ali bin Abi Talib said,

“Abdur-Rahman bin `Awf made some food to which he invited us and served some alcohol to drink. When we became intoxicated, and the time for prayer came, they asked someone to lead us in prayer. He recited `Say, `O disbelievers! I do not worship that which you worship, but we worship that which you worship (refer to the correct wording of the Surah:109).”‘

Allah then revealed,
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ امَنُواْ لَا تَقْرَبُواْ الصَّلَةَ وَأَنتُمْ سُكَارَى حَتَّىَ تَعْلَمُواْ مَا تَقُولُونَ
(O you who believe! Do not approach Salah when you are in a drunken state until you know what you are saying).”

This is the narration collected by Ibn Abi Hatim and At-Tirmidhi, who said “Hasan GharibSahih.”

Allah’s statement,

حَتَّىَ تَعْلَمُواْ مَا تَقُولُونَ

until you know what you are saying,

is the best description for when one is intoxicated, that is, when he does not know the meaning of what he is saying. When a person is drunk, he makes obvious mistakes in the recitation and will not be able to be humble during the prayer.

and then the Ayah in Surah Al-Ma’idah which prohibited Khamr.

▪Prohibiting Khamr (Intoxicants) and Maysir (Gambling)

Allah says;

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ امَنُواْ إِنَّمَا الْخَمْرُ وَالْمَيْسِرُ وَالَانصَابُ وَالَازْلَامُ

O you who believe! Khamr, Maysir, Ansab, and Azlam are,

Allah forbids His believing servants from consuming Alcohol and Maysir which is gambling.

Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ali bin Abi Talib, the Leader of the Faithful, said that;
chess is a type of gambling.
Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ata, Mujahid and Tawus, or , two of them, said that;
every type of gambling, including children’s playing with (a certain type of) nuts, is Maysir.
Ibn Umar said that;
Al-Maysir means gambling,

and this is the same statement that Ad-Dahhak reported from Ibn Abbas, who added,

“They used to gamble during the time of Jahiliyyah, until Islam came. Allah then forbade them from this evil behavior.”
Meaning of Ansab and Azlam
According to Ibn Abbas, Mujahid, Ata’, Sa`id bin Jubayr and Al-Hasan,
Al-Ansab were altar stones, in whose vicinity sacrifices were offered (during the time of Jahiliyyah).

As Ibn Abi Hatim narrated they also said that;
Al-Azlam were arrows that they used for lotteries to make decisions.

Allah said,

رِجْسٌ مِّنْ عَمَلِ الشَّيْطَانِ

A Sin of Shaytan’s handiwork,
meaning, abomination of Shaytan’s handiwork,
while Zayd bin Aslam said;
“An evil handiwork of Shaytan.”
فَاجْتَنِبُوهُ
So avoid that,
avoid all of these abominations,
لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ

in order that you may be successful.

and this is a statement of encouragement.

Al-Ma’idah 5:91

إِنَّمَا يُرِيدُ ٱلشَّيْطَٰنُ أَن يُوقِعَ بَيْنَكُمُ ٱلْعَدَٰوَةَ وَٱلْبَغْضَآءَ فِى ٱلْخَمْرِ وَٱلْمَيْسِرِ وَيَصُدَّكُمْ عَن ذِكْرِ ٱللَّهِ وَعَنِ ٱلصَّلَوٰةِۖ فَهَلْ أَنتُم مُّنتَهُونَ

Satan only wants to cause between you animosity and hatred through intoxicants and gambling and to avert you from the remembrance of Allah and from prayer. So will you not desist?
May Allah give us the ability to stay away from drugs and gambling.

Spending whatever One could spare of his Money on Charity
Allah said:
وَيَسْأَلُونَكَ مَاذَا يُنفِقُونَ قُلِ الْعَفْوَ
And they ask you what they ought to spend.
Say:”That which is (spare) beyond your needs.”
Al-Hakam said that Miqsam said that Ibn Abbas said that this Ayah means,
whatever you can spare above the needs of your family.
This is also the opinion of Ibn Umar, Mujahid, Ata, Ikrimah, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Muhammad bin Ka`b, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Al-Qasim, Salim, Ata Al-Khurasani and Ar-Rabi bin Anas.
Ibn Jarir related that Abu Hurayrah said that a man said,
“O Messenger of Allah! I have a Dinar (a currency).”
The Prophet said:
أَنْفِقْهُ عَلى نَفْسِك
Spend it you on yourself.
He said, “I have another Dinar.”
He said:
أَنْفِقْهُ عَلى أَهْلِك
Spend it on your wife.
He said, “I have another Dinar.”
He said:
أَنْفِقْهُ عَلى وَلَدِك
Spend it on your offspring.
He said, “I have another Dinar.”
He said:
فَأَنْتَ أَبْصَر
You have better knowledge (meaning how and where to spend it in charity).

Muslim also recorded this Hadith in his Sahih.
Muslim recorded that Jabir said that Allah’s Messenger said to a man:
ابْدَأْ بِنَفْسِكَ فَتَصَدَّقْ عَلَيْهَا فَإِنْ فَضَلَ شَيْءٌ فَلَِهْلِكَ فَإِنْ فَضَلَ شَيْءٌ عَنْ أَهْلِكَ فَلِذِي قَرَابَتِكَ فَإِنْ فَضَلَ عَنْ ذِي قَرَابَتِكَ شَيْءٌ فَهكَذَا وَهكَذَا
Start with yourself and grant it some charity. If anything remains, then spend it on your family. If anything remains, then spend it on your relatives. If anything remains, then spend it like this and like that (i.e., on various charitable purposes).
A Hadith states:
ابْنَ ادَمَ إِنَّكَ أَنْ تَبْذُلَ الْفَضْلَ خَيْرٌ لَكَ وَأَنْ تُمْسِكَهُ شَرٌّ لَكَ وَلَا تُلَمُ عَلى كَفَاف
O son of Adam! If you spend whatever you can spare, it would be better for you; but if you keep it, it would be worse for you. You shall not be blamed for whatever is barely sufficient. For this sake we should try to help the needy and orphans for any contributions contact;alimranislamicfoundation

Massalam.